以小人之心度君子之腹351105303BILINGUALBILINGUAL/enpproperty-->

陈圣之,王忠奎,何卓伦

By Chen Shengzhi,Wang Zhongkui and He Zhuolun

投射效应,在心理学上是指将自己的特点归因到其他人身上的倾向。人在认知和对他人形成印象时,以为他人也具备与自己相似的特性的现象,把自己的感情、意志、特性投射到他人身上并强加于人。

The projection effect, in psychology, refers to the tendency to attribute one's own characteristics to other people. When people perceive and form impressions of others, they assume that others also possess similar characteristics to their own, and project their own feelings, will, and characteristics onto others.

美国政府根据对自己所作所为的认知试图给中国一个又一个标签,便是一次又一次对投射效应的集中体现。

A good example of the projection effect is how the US government has labeled China based on its perception of what it has done.

标签1:强迫劳动

Forced labor

2021年12月23日,美国国会制定的“维吾尔强迫劳动预防法案”经拜登总统签署生效,控诉我新疆存在强迫劳动的“集中营”,随后各个美国公司同时开始了对新疆产品所谓的“人道主义”打压。

The "Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act" enacted by the US Congress was signed into law by President Biden on Dec. 23, 2021, accusing China of having "concentration camps" for forced labor in Xinjiang, and then various US companies simultaneously started their so-called humanitarian blockade on products from Xinjiang.

但事实上,若论在强迫劳动领域的“贡献”,美国可谓“首屈一指”。从18世纪开始,随着美国南方种植业迅速扩张,大量黑人被贩卖到美国,强迫劳动、强迫卖淫、债务奴役。据统计截止1865年,一共约有59.7万名黑人被从非洲贩卖到了美国。

But actually on the "contributions" in the field of forced labor, the United States is second to none. From the 18th century, with the rapid expansion of the plantation industry in the South, a large number of black people were trafficked to the United States for forced labor, forced prostitution, and debt bondage. According to statistics, by 1865, a total of 597,000 blacks were trafficked from Africa to the United States.

放眼当今,美国的“强迫劳动”问题仍层出不穷。据央视网报道,在美国田间,雇佣青少年甚至是儿童干农活的现象很是普遍,对于童工来说,每天工作10小时以上是家常便饭,每周的劳作甚至达到惊人的72小时,已远超成年男性每周劳作的平均时长,童工死亡案件屡有发生。然而现实并未使美国有所警醒,直至今日,美国既没有批准作为联合国两大综合性核心人权公约之一的《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》,也没有批准联合国人权公约中接受程度非常高的《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《残疾人权利公约》和《儿童权利公约》。2015年6月10日,国际工会联盟发布一份报告,将美国列为系统性地侵犯工人权利的国家之一。

Today, the problem of "forced labor" in the US is still rampant. According to China Central Television (CCTV), the phenomenon of employing teenagers and even kids to do farm work is very common in rural areas. As for child laborers, working more than 10 hours a day is quite common, and the weekly labor even reached a staggering 72 hours, which has far exceeded the average length of adult male labor per week, and child labor deaths have occurred repeatedly. However, the reality has not alerted the U.S., and to this day, the US has neither ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, one of the two comprehensive core UN human rights conventions, nor the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which are highly accepted UN human rights conventions. Trade Union Confederation released a report listing the United States as one of the countries that systematically violate workers' rights.

标签2:种族灭绝

Genocide

针对美国国务卿布林肯涉疆言论,外交部发言人汪文斌在3月2日的例行记者会上表示,中方谴责美方再次散布谎言,对中方进行抹黑攻击。 “中国新疆地区过去60多年来,人口总量增长了4倍,维吾尔族人口总量从220万增长到约1200万,说新疆种族灭绝是彻头彻尾的世纪谎言,毫无道德可言。美国建国以来对印第安人进行大肆屠杀,使印第安人人口数量从1492年的500万锐减到20世纪初的25万,这才是不折不扣的种族灭绝。美国新政府上台后,不仅没有肃清上届政府炮制谎言、抹黑中国的‘遗毒’,反而继承其衣钵,继续操纵谎言对中国进行污蔑抹黑,妄图破坏中国民族团结,干扰中国发展。”

In response to US Secretary of State Blinken's remarks related to Xinjiang, Foreign Ministry spokesman Wang Wenbin stated at a regular press conference on March 2 that China condemns the US side for its moves to smear and attack China by spreading lies. "Over the past 60-plus years, the population in China’s Xinjiang region increased fourfold and the Uyghur population grew from 2.2 million to about 12 million. The accusation of “genocide” in Xinjiang is a flat-out lie of the century. Those who make this accusation are totally unethical. Since its founding, the US has slaughtered the Native Americans, whose population nosedived from five million in 1492 to 250,000 at the beginning of the 20th century. This is nothing short of genocide. After the new US administration came in office, instead of rooting out the former administration’s poisonous legacy of concocting lies to smear China, it inherited the approach of manipulating lies to denigrate China, in an attempt to undermine China’s ethnic unity and hobble China’s development."

“美国国内少数族裔饱受欺凌排斥,在政治、经济、文化、社会生活等各个领域面临长期、广泛、系统性的歧视。”新疆维吾尔自治区宣传部副部长徐贵相说,美国政府对印第安人长期实行强制种族灭绝、隔离、同化政策。美国在建国后近百年时间里,在西进运动中大肆驱逐、杀戮印第安人。到20世纪初,美国印第安人口已从1492年的500万骤减至25万。如今,在美印第安人数量仅占美总人口的2%。“前段时间,美国非洲裔男子弗洛伊德之死及其引发的大规模抗议活动,再次暴露出美国内存在的长期性、系统性的严重种族歧视,已经使美国少数族裔到了‘不能呼吸’的地步。”徐贵相表示,“美国的所作所为违背了国际公理和价值准则,违背了人类道义和基本良知,违背了国际人权理念和公约原则,美国才是真正存在种族灭绝行为的国家!”

"Ethnic minorities within the United States have been subject to bullying and exclusion, and long-term, widespread, and systematic discrimination in all spheres of political, economic, cultural, and social life," said Xu Guixiang, the deputy head of the publicity department of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. He pointed out that the US government has long practiced a policy of forced genocide, segregation, and assimilation against Indians. For nearly a century after its founding, the United States expelled and killed Indians extensively during its westward movement. By the early 20th century, the American Indian population had plummeted from 5 million in 1492 to 250,000. Today, the number of Indians in the United States is only 2 percent of the total US population. "Some time ago, the death of African American George Floyd and the massive protests it sparked once again revealed the existence of chronic, systemic and severe racial discrimination within the United States that has brought American minorities to the point where they 'cannot breathe,'" Xu Guixiang said. "What the US has done is against international axioms and values, against human morality and basic conscience, and against the principles of international human rights concepts and conventions. The US is the country where genocide has been really committed."

标签3:新殖民主义

Neocolonialism

全球化一般是指随着全球联系不断增强,人类全球意识不断发展及生产生活在全球范围内不断展开的历史过程。共建“一带一路”不只是为全球化添砖加瓦,更是推动全球化深入发展的一面旗帜。然而,某些西方国家却因“制度化偏见”得出中国推行“新殖民主义”的谬论。

Globalization generally refers to the historical process in which human beings' global consciousness develops and their production life unfolds on a global scale as global ties continue to grow. The Belt and Road Initiative is not only a brick in the wall of globalization, but also a banner to promote the further development of globalization. However, some Western countries have come to conclusion that China is practicing "neo-colonialism" due to their institutionalized bias.

加纳原总统恩克鲁玛在《新殖民主义》中指出:“新殖民主义的实质是,在它控制下的国家从理论上讲是独立的,而且具有国家主权的一切外表。实际上,它们的经济制度、从而它们的政治政策,都是受外力支配的”,“实行新殖民主义的结果是,外国资本被用来对世界上的较不发达地区进行剥削,而不是用于它们的发展。在新殖民主义的控制下,投资只是在扩大而不是在缩小世界上贫富国家之间的差距”。

Nkrumah, the former president of Ghana, pointed out in Neo-colonialism that "the essence of neo-colonialism is that the countries under its control are theoretically independent and have all the appearance of national sovereignty. Whereas in reality, their economic systems, and even their political policies, are dictated by external forces" and "the result of the practice of neocolonialism is that foreign capital is used to exploit the less developed regions of the world, rather than for their development. Under the control of neocolonialism, investments serve the only purpose of widening rather than narrowing the gap between rich and poor countries in the world".

而“一带一路”可谓与“新殖民主义”天差地别。共建“一带一路”不仅能够促进沿线国家在地缘、地位等硬件因素上实现历史性跃升,而且也能促进沿线国家在制度、文化等软件因素上实现跃升,从而从整体上促进沿线国家在与世界其他国家和地区独立自主、互利共赢的交往中实现发展。这是以超越现代性及其逻辑为前提的,蕴含全球化新时代的发展理念,也是推动全球化进入新时代的实践安排。某些西方国家所宣称共建“一带一路”是中国推进“新殖民主义”的言论,并不是站在共建“一带一路”沿线国家的立场得出的结论,而是基于他们自身霸权主义立场而产生的外部性反思的谬误。

The Belt and Road Initiative is a far cry from neo-colonialism. The Belt and Road Initiative will not only promote a historical leap in the geopolitical, status and other hardware factors of the countries along the route, but also in the institutional, cultural and other software factors of the countries along the route, thus promoting the development of the countries along the route in an independent, mutually beneficial and win-win interaction with other countries and regions of the world as a whole. This is premised on transcending modernity and its logic, and contains the development concept of a new era of globalization, as well as the practical arrangement to promote globalization into a new era. Some Western countries claim that the Belt and Road Initiative is China's promotion of neo-colonialism, but they do not draw conclusions from the standpoint of the countries along the Belt and Road. Rather, it is a fallacy based on their own hegemonic position of reflecting on externalities.

标签4:债务陷阱

Debt Trap

去年底,西方媒体一度热炒这样一则“新闻”:由于还不起中国贷款,非洲东部国家乌干达不得不将国内唯一的恩德培国际机场交由中国“接管”,成为中国“债务陷阱”的又一个“受害者”。这是个别国家杜撰出的一套以偏概全、混淆视听的话语陷阱,惯用手法是选择性夸大发展中国家对华债务,闭口不谈中国融资带来的经济社会成效。大致套路如下:

At the end of last year, the Western media was once buzzing with the news that Uganda had to hand over its only international airport in Entebbe to China because it could not repay the Chinese loan, thus becoming another victim of China's "debt trap". This is a set of biased and confusing rhetorical traps fabricated by some countries. The usual tactic is to selectively exaggerate developing countries' debts to China and not to talk about the economic and social benefits brought by Chinese funding. The general set-up is as follows.

一、“债务工具化”。中国借“一带一路”合作向发展中国家提供巨额贷款,债务国以关乎国家命脉的战略资产作为抵押,还不起债就得向中国交出战略资产。

"Debt instrumentation". China provides huge loans to developing countries through the Belt and Road Initiative, and the debtor countries use strategic assets that are vital to their countries as collateral, so they have to surrender their strategic assets to China if they cannot repay their debts.

 二、“债务不可持续”。中国利用不可持续的债务关系加重发展中国家债务负担,推高他们的违约风险,使他们陷入“债务困境”。

"Unsustainable Debt". China uses unsustainable debt relationships to increase the debt burden of developing countries, pushing up their risk of default and putting them in debt distress. 三、“债务不透明”。中国债务协议都设有保密条款,债务用途去向不透明。 "Opaque Debt". China's debt agreements have confidentiality clauses and are not transparent about where the debt is going.

这套说辞看起来言之凿凿,实际上经不起推敲。

This rhetoric may seem convincing, but it does not stand up to scrutiny.

事实上,贷款也有好坏之分,关键是看债权人放贷的初衷、债款的用途以及债款本身能否产生效益。发展中国家普遍缺乏创业的“第一桶金”,有时只能对外借债。如果它们借的债能够帮助创造就业、造福人民,挣了钱还得起,那就是好债务。债务性质的好坏不单一决定于债务占比的多少,正如许多发达国家,其自身债务普遍超过GDP的100%,也不见它们为自己的“债务陷阱”叫苦。

In fact, loans can be good or bad, depending on the creditor's original intent, the use of the debt, and whether the debt itself is productive. Developing countries generally lack the startup capital to start business, and sometimes have to borrow from foreign insitutions. If the debt they borrow can help create jobs and benefit people, and if they can afford to pay it back when they earn money, then it is good debt. The nature of the debt is not a single decision on the number of debt ratio, as in many developed countries, their own debt generally exceeds 100% of GDP, but do not see them for their "debt trap" to complain.

反观西方给非洲的贷款主要用在非生产领域,没有增加税收和出口创汇,迫使非洲国家政府陷入“越借越穷、越穷越借”的恶性循环。

In contrast, Western loans to Africa are mainly used in non-productive areas, without increasing tax revenue and export earnings, forcing African governments into a vicious cycle of "the more they borrow, the poorer they are".

此外,西方金融机构利用债务,深度介入非洲国家经济和政治改革进程,对非洲国家内政指手画脚,本质还是殖民者的思维惯性在作祟。

In addition, Western financial institutions use debt to intervene deeply in the economic and political reform process of African countries and dictate the internal affairs of African countries, which is essentially the inertia of colonial thinking at work.

一言以蔽之:西方贷款不仅给非洲制造了“欠发展陷阱”,还制造了“不稳定陷阱”,是名副其实、不可持续的“恶性债务”,已经成为非洲发展路上的“毒瘤”。

In a word, western loans have not only created a trap of underdevelopment for Africa, but also a trap of instability, a veritable and unsustainable vicious debt that has developed into a cancer on the road to Africa's development.

标签5:操纵汇率

Currency manipulation

目前,西方对中国作为新兴超级大国的种种指责不绝于耳,其中一个最常被谈及的问题即所谓的“中国操纵汇率”,以澄清事实。这种指责属于凭空捏造的政治攻击,美国是世界上最大的经济体,美元是世界公认最强的国际性货币,拥有绝对竞争优势、强大经济实力、美元霸主地位的美国却总是像一个受人欺负的孩子一样,指责别的国家“操纵汇率”,这本身就是一个让人无法理解的事情。先是日本的日元,近些年则将矛头集中指向中国,近期更是又多了德国。可以看出,美国所谓“操纵汇率”只是其为取得在正常市场竞争中和当前市场秩序下无法取得的利益和优势的一种方式,是打击竞争对手和挑战货币确保美国优势和美元霸主地位的一种手段。

Nowadays, the West has filed accusations against China as an emerging superpower, among which a mostly talked about one is the so-called currency manipulation. The US is the world's largest economy and the US dollar is recognized as the strongest international currency. The United States, which has absolute competitive advantage, strong economic power and the dominant position of the dollar, always acts like a bullied child and accuses other countries of currency manipulation, which is in itself beyond the understanding of the people all over the world. It firstly aimed at Japanese yen, and then in recent years shifted to China. It can be seen that the so-called currency manipulation in the United States is only a way to obtain benefits and advantages that cannot be obtained in normal market competition and under the current market order, and is a means to pressure competitors and challenge the currency to ensure US dominance and the hegemony of the dollar.

已经持续几个世纪的货币操纵作为一种赤裸裸的抢劫,事实上早已成为西方经济模式的一部分。20世纪50年代起,美国就开始货币操纵和货币欺诈。

Currency manipulation, which has been going on for centuries as a form of outright robbery, has in fact long been part of the Western economic model. Currency manipulation and currency fraud have been widely adopted in the United States since the 1950s.

一是大量发钞,通过发钞来弥补赤字。 First, it issued large amounts of money so as to cover deficits.

二是推行美元周期,通过在投资者大量持有非美元资产时推美元强势周期,在投资者大量持有美元资产时推美元弱势周期,以此来大肆掠夺美元投资者。

Second, it took advantage of the dollar cycle to prey on dollar investors by pushing a strong dollar cycle when they hold a lot of non-dollar assets and a weak dollar cycle when they hold a lot of dollar assets.

三是打击主要竞争货币,通过打击对美元霸主地位形成威胁的主要货币来支撑美元的绝对霸主地位,使投资者除了持有美元资产外没有别的货币选项。

Third, it bolstered the absolute hegemony of the US dollar by cracking down on major currencies that pose a threat to the dollar's hegemony, leaving investors with no currency options other than holding dollar assets.

标签6:网络攻击

Cyber Attack

2021年12月,美国、英国等部分国家及欧盟、北约同时发表声明,声称中方发动网络攻击,以所谓“网络窃密”为由起诉四名中方人员。对此,外交部发言人赵立坚指出此举无中生有,颠倒黑白,完全是出于政治目的的抹黑和打压,中方绝不接受。

In December 2021, the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries, as well as the European Union and NATO, simultaneously issued a statement claiming that China had launched a cyber attack and prosecuted four Chinese personnel for so-called "cyber theft". In response, Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian pointed out that this is a move to smear and suppress for political purposes, which China will never accept.

从对“中国政府支持APT3、APT10等黑客组织”的污蔑到近期所谓“网络窃密”的起诉,西方对于“中国网络威胁论”的闹剧早已使人司空见惯。美国在网上大肆炒作“中国网络威胁论”,主要目的有三:

From the smearing of "Chinese government supports APT3, APT10 and other hacker groups" to the recent prosecution of so-called "cyber theft," the West's farce of "China's cyber threat" has long become inured to the unusual. The US online hype about the "Chinese cyber threat" has three main purposes to serve.

一是树立“强敌”,以便集中抹黑和打压;

First, to develop a "strong enemy" so as to focus on discrediting and suppressing.

二是凝聚国内力量,以便增强自身网络实力;

Second, to rally domestic forces in order to enhance their own cyber power.

三是拉拢盟友,以便对中国进行“围剿”。

Third, to woo the allies in order to "encircle" China.

反观西方,水门事件、斯诺登事件、维基解密事件……美国自身一直对包括盟友在内的其他国家长期进行非法窃听,大量窃取受害国的秘密信息,大量获取受害国重要信息基础设施的控制权,大量掌握世界各国的公民个人隐私,服务于美国霸权。近日,中国国家计算机病毒应急处理中心和360公司同日披露了美国国家安全局下属的又一款网络攻击武器“酸狐狸”漏洞攻击武器平台。该平台是美国国家安全局下属计算机网络入侵行动队的主战装备,攻击范围覆盖全球,重点攻击目标指向中国和俄罗斯,涉及中国多家科研单位和上百个重要信息系统,美国的做法不能不让人怀疑其正在积极为发动更大规模的网络战做准备。

The history of US, has been filled with cyber-attack scandals, Watergate, Snowden, WikiLeaks, just name a few. The US itself has been illegally eavesdropping on other countries, its allies making no exception, for a long time, stealing a lot of secret information from the victim countries, acquiring control of important information infrastructure of the victim countries, and grasping a lot of personal privacy of citizens in countries around the world to serve US hegemony. Recently, China's National Computer Virus Emergency Response Center and Beijing Qihoo technology Co., LTD, a leading information security company in China, disclosed on the same day another network attack weapon under the US National Security Agency, "Acid Fox" vulnerability attack weapon platform. The platform is the main warfare equipment of the NSA's computer network intrusion operation team, which covers the whole world and focuses on China and Russia, involving many Chinese scientific research units and hundreds of important information systems, and the international community cannot help but suspect that the U.S.has been actively preparing for larger-scale cyber operations.

长期以来,美国在网络空间追求绝对安全,采取具有显著双重标准特点的行动。美国本身是全球最主要的网络攻击策源地之一。一方面,美国肆意的窃取他国网民的隐私、数据,随意的对各个国家发起网络攻击,视别国的国家主权为无物,另一方面,美国不断对中国进行莫须有的指责,这就是最典型的“双标”。

The United States has long pursued absolute security in cyberspace, taking actions characterized by significant double standards. The United States itself is one of the world's leading cyber attack curators. On the one hand, the US has been recklessly stealing the privacy and data of Internet users in other countries and launching cyber attacks on various countries at will, treating the national sovereignty of other countries as nothing, while on the other hand, the US has been constantly making unfounded accusations against China.

纵观美国政府和主流媒体给中国贴出的一个个标签,不仅反应出了对别国情况的无知,更显现出了基于自身所作所为而赋予他国强烈偏见的狭隘。正如谚语所说,用一根手指指着别人的时候,还有三根指向自己。投射效应是一种严重的认知心理偏差。辩证地、一分为二地去对待别人和对待自己,才是克服投射效应的方法。美国这病,不轻,得治。

The labels that the US government and major media outlets have tried their utmostto attach to China reflect not only their ignorance, but also the narrow-mindedness of the strong bias they assign to other countries based on what they have done and what they are doing. As the proverb says, when you point one finger at someone, you point three fingers at yourself. The projection effect is a serious cognitive psychological bias. The way to get out of this is to try not to project one’s own thinking onto others. The US government is seriously ill and cries to be cured.

 

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